Wednesday, July 13, 2016

Fortigate web filtering - YouTube and Vimeo problem

The configuration part of the Fortigate web filter is very easy. Fortinet has made a good job with categorising web sites throughout the world, and you can easily select what categories you want to allow, block, and which to prompt the user with a warning.

For full inspection (proxy) you will need to use a certificate; either one from your own CA, or you can use the certificate that's installed on the Fortigate by default. Either way you need the client to trust the certificate or you will get browser warnings.

There is one problem with this, and that is with sites using HSTS. Most browsers supports and use this protection mechanism, if the site is enable with it. Short story, this mechanism blocks man-in-the-middle attacks, which basically is what the Fortigate is doing when you are using full inspection (proxy) of traffic.

So if you want you users to be able to watch videos on YouTube and Vimeo, you will have to disable SSL inspection on the following URLs:

Here's a guide on how I did this on FortiOS 5.2.5.
- Go to "Security Profiles", "Advanced", and "Web Rating Overrides"
- Click the "Custom Categories" button on the top
- Create a new category (or rename one of the default custom ones that is built in) and name it "Whitelist". For convenience, you could also create two more: "Warning" and "Block". It's nice to have in case you want to override a category on a website.
- Go back to the "Web Rating Overrides" menu and click "Create New".
- Add the URLs I listed above and select the "Custom Categories" and "Whitelist". Do this for both URLs if you want both YouTube and Vimeo working.
- Go to your web filter profile and change each of the new Local Categories you made to Allow, Warning, and Block.
- Go to the "SSL/SSH Inspection" under "Policy & Objects", "Policy"
- Select you SSL profile from the list (if you have more than one)
- In the "Exempt from SSL Inspection" section, add the "Whitelist" category.

There you have it!  You can still have warning on the "Streaming Media and Download" category, and the users will get the Fortigate warning message, but be able to click proceed to watch YouTube and Vimeo videos.

This is also possible to do in FortiOS 5.0, but you will have to do it through the CLI. The guide above will work for most of the settings (except that Fortinet is moving stuff around like crazy each firmware), but you need to do the "Exempt from SSL Inspection" from the CLI. You find this under the following CLI section:
config webfilter profile
edit [your_profile_name]
config ftgd-wf
Do a "get" to see what the ID of your Whitelist category is
Also do a "show" to see what other category IDs is in exempt-ssl
copy the line with "set exempt-ssl", and add the ID of you Whitelist category at the end:
set exempt-ssl [IDs_of_other_categories] [ID_of_your_Whitelist_category]

As an ending note I want to say that there are more sites using HSTS that can cause you headache, so if you encounter any problems, try adding the URL to the Whitelist category. This will however white list the site completely, but I guess that's not an issue as you want to allow it :)

Thursday, August 13, 2015

Backup of Riverbed Steelhead devices with SSH

It is possible to send commands through SSH, and with this, it is pretty easy to set up configuration backup of the Riverbed Steelhead devices.

ssh admin\@<IP or hostname> < <file with commands to run>
ssh admin\@ < commands.txt

To save the output to file:
ssh admin\@<IP or hostname> < <file with commands to run> > <output file>
ssh admin\@ < commands.txt > config.conf

To get the configuration, write the following in the "commands.txt" file:
show configuration running

You can also do "show configuration full" to get default values in the configuration in addition to the configuration that has been added.

Other useful stuff you can add in the "commands.txt" file:
write mem - saves the configuration
show info - shows status, update, temperature, version etc
show version - shows serial, version, model, uptime, memory, CPU etc

The SSH commands will ask you for password. You can easily add an RSA key to the device so you do not need to type the password manually.

First you need to generate RSA keys, and then insert the public key into the Riverbed device by typing: 
ssh client user admin authorized-key key sshv2 "ssh-rsa your public key"

To connect with SSH with your RSA keys, use this command:
ssh -T -i private.key admin\@ < commands.txt > config.conf

The "-T" option is not needed, but it solved a console error message I had.

If you do not know how to create the RSA keys, I have written it in a previous post:

I also want to mention this guy for getting me on track :) He has written this with more detailed explanation than me:
Scripting the riverbed steelhead

Tuesday, July 21, 2015

Rancid and Fortigate - not straight forward

Today I have been working with Rancid and Fortigate. Everything seemed ok in the beginning, all my tests was working as expected.

This was until I found a problem with one of the configuration files. One of the configuration files was missing a lot of configuration. It has stopped after about 60-70 lines. At the end of the diff email, I found the following text: "\ No newline at end of file"
I am not completely sure why this Fortigate was having this problem. It might be because it has VDOM configuration. I solved this by downloading a new fnrancid and fnlogin file from the rancid git repository (

After this, I was a bit skeptical as Rancid did not give any warnings that the configuration was not complete, so I looked deeper into the configuration files that Rancid had backed up. I found that all Fortigates with VDOM configuration did not have the full configuration files. It seems Rancid skips small parts of the configuration as it only get it by typing show commands in the console. I did a search for "config vdom" and "edit root" in backups, but I did not find it. It may not be a problem, but I think it will be a problem to do a complete restore. Another problem is that Rancid do not get the header of the configuration file. This will certainly cause a problem if you need a complete restore.


You can of course add this header yourself, but I advice to get it right for the firmware your are restoring to. I am not sure what will happen if you get it wrong.

Because of these problems, I rather download the configuration file from the Fortigates with SCP. I have another article in my blog about this.

Thursday, June 26, 2014

IKEv1 vs IKEv2


1.IKEv2 does not consume as much bandwidth as IKEv1.
2.IKEv2 supports EAP authentication while IKEv1 doesn’t.
3.IKEv2 supports MOBIKE while IKEv1 doesn’t.
4.IKEv2 has built-in NAT traversal while IKEv1 doesn’t.
5.IKEv2 can detect whether a tunnel is still alive while IKEv1 cannot.

Check this link for more info:

Friday, May 20, 2011

iFolder on SLES 11 SP 1

After a million problems to get this to work, I found out that mono(mono.WebServer) is (badly) needed by iFolder.
Here's the mono repo that I got this from:

It's also available for OpenSuse versions: 11.0 - 11.2

Friday, February 25, 2011

List of public IP net

I tried to find a list of all the public IP nets, but could't find any. Therefor, I made one myself :)

PS: I did not take out the lookback range ( ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( - ( -

Multicast and R&D: ( -
Multicast: ( -
R&D: ( -

Friday, July 2, 2010

Minecraft - the best sandbox game ever!

I wanted to write a little something about this game called Minecraft. It's still under development, but it is already showing great potential! :)

It's basicly buildt up by alot of bricks. Kinda like lego. When you first start a level, it will autogenerate the terrain where you start. You will probably see alot of trees, waters, grassy lands, mountains, and if you are lucky you can also discover water and lava springs!

You can basicly do whatever you want with the terrain. You can dig up dirt, mine out big caves in the mountains, and build structures with the dirt and stone you have collected. The left screenshot shows a little entrance I have dug out of the dirt.

The first thing you might want to do when you start out, is collecting some wood. You can do this by simply hammer at the tree with your first. You do this by holding in the left mouse button. This will take a few seconds since you don't have any tools, but as soon as you craft some, the time it takes to do so decreases significantly.

One of the fun parts of the game (in my oppinion), is to discover how stuff works. So I won't be going into any detail on how to do it all, but to give you a little hint... press "i" to enter your inventory. Here you have all the stuff you have collected, and a small crafting menu. To be able to craft bigger items, you have to build a crafting bench. I'll leave it to you do find out how :) To the left you can see I have opened the crafting bench. To make items, you just put in the materials you want to use in a specific pattern. I am making a iron pick axe here. You can make all tools with whatever materials you like, wood, stone, iron, and even diamond! (if you are lucky to come by some).

This next screenshot shows the furnace. Here you can melt ore in to metals, roast your pig meat, harden the stone you have collected, or make glass out of sand. You can use both wood and coal to fire up the furnace.

You get the pig meat from slaying pigs. Pigs and sheeps spawns when the sun is up. You get wool from sheeps. From the wool you can craft clothes, wich protects you a little bit from falls and enemies. Enemies spawns during the night. Some of them are very creepy! You'll know what I mean after playing a little xD

There are 2 versions of the game; Alpha and classic. Alpha is the most current up to date version (wich costs about 10 Euros), and classic is an early version where you only can create and destroy bricks. Minecraft Classic have multiplayer support. Multiplayer support in the Alpha version is the developers first priority now, only a few weeks away i think! That's probably when the game will go beta too, and cost twice the price.

Notch - the one and only developer of the game, is constantly adding new features and fixes to the game. Almost every day you will see his progression with the game in his blog. Before Minecraft, Notch was working with Rolf on Wurm Online. I think he was helping out with the coding of the client. Anyways... I'm really looking forward to see how this game will turn out. I know that Notch have his eyes on Dwarf Fortress (a very advanced, but very fun game with ascii graphics), and I hope it will turn up something like that! :D Hopefully, multiplayer support will be out when I am back from my vacation!

Here are a cupple of videos showing the infinite world (it generates itself as you walk) and a pretty neat roller coaster :D